188 HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION [1624 had abused them. And this was all the answer they could have, for none would take his parte in any thing; but Billing- ton, and any whom he named, deneyed the things, and pro- tested he wronged them, and would have drawne them to such and such things which they could not consents too, though they were sometimes drawne to his meetings. Then they delte with him aboute his dissembling with them aboute the church, and that he professed to concm* with them in all things, and what a large confession he made at his admit- tance, and that he held not him selfe a minister till he had a new calling, etc. And yet now he contested against them, and drew a company aparte, and sequestred him selfe; and would goe minister the sacrements (by his Episcopall caHng) without ever speaking a word unto them, either as magistrats or bretheren. In conclusion, he was fully convicted, and burst out into tears, and "confest he feared he was a repro- bate, his sinns were so great that he doubted God would not pardon them, he was imsavorie salte, etc. ; and that he had so wronged them as he could never make them amends, con- fessing all he had write against them was false and nought, both for matter and manner." And all this he did with as much fullnes as words and tears could express. After their triall and conviction, the comi; censured them to be expeld the place; Oldame presently, though his wife and family had liberty to stay all winter, or longer, till he could make provission to remove them comfortably. Lyford had Uberty to stay 6. months. It was, indeede, with some eye to his release, if he caried him selfe well in the meane time, and that his repentance proved soimd. Lyford acknowledged his censure was farr less than he deserved. Afterwards, he confest his sin publikly in the church, with tears more largly then before. I shall here put it downe as I fhid it recorded by some who tooke it from his owne words, as him selfe utered them. Acknowledging "That he had don very evill, and slanderously abused them; and thinking most 1624] WILLIAM BRADFORD, GOVERNOR 189 of the people would take parte with him, he thought to cary all by violence and strong hand against them. And that God might justly lay innocente blood to his charge, for he knew not what hurt might have come of these his writings, and blest God they were stayed. And that he spared not to take knowledg from any, of any evill that was spoaken, but shut his eyes and ears against all the good; and if God should make him a vacabund in the earth, as was Caine, it was but just, for he had sined in envie and maUce against his brethren as he did. And he confessed 3. things to be the groimd and causes of these his doings: pride, vaine-glorie, and selfe love." Amphfying these heads with many other sade expressions, in the perticulers of them. So as they begane againe to conceive good thoughts of him upon this his repentance, and admited him to teach amongst them as before; and Samuell Fuller (a deacon amongst them), and some other tender harted men amongst them, were so taken with his signes of sorrow and repentance, as they professed they would fall upon their knees to have his censure released. But that which made them all stand amased in the end, and may doe all others that shall come to hear the same, (for a rarer president can scarse be showne,) was, that after a month or 2. notwithstand all his former conffessions, convic- tions, and pubUck acknowledgments, both in the face of the church and whole company, with so many tears and sadde censures of him selfe before God and men, he should goe againe to justifie what he had done. For secretly he write a 2^. leter to the adventurers in England, in which he justified all his former writings, (save in some things which tended to their damage,) the which, be- cause it is brefer then the former, I shall here inserte. Worthy Srs: Though the filth of mine owne doings may justly be cast in my face, and with blushing cause my perpetuall silence, yet that the truth may not herby be injuried, your selves any longer deluded, nor in[j]urious dealing caried out still, with bould out facings, I have ad- 190 HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION [1624 ventured once more to write unto you. Firest, I doe freely confess I delte very indiscreetly in some of my perticuler leters which I wrote to private freinds, for the courses in coming hither and the like; which I doe in no sorte seeke to justifie, though stired up ther unto in the beholding the indirecte courses held by others, both hear, and ther with you, for effecting their designes. But am hartily sory for it, and doe to the glory of God and mine owne shame acknowledg it. Which leters being inter- cepted by the Gov', I have for the same undergone the censure of ban- ishmente. And had it not been for the respecte I have unto you, and some other matters of private regard, I had returned againe at this time by the pinass for England; for hear I purpose not to abide, unless I re- ceive better incouragmente from you, then from the church (as they call them selves) here I doe receive. I purposed before I came, to undergoe hardnes, therfore I shall I hope cherfuUy bear the conditions of the place, though very mean; and they have chainged my wages ten times aUready. I suppose my letters, or at least the coppies of them, are come to your hands, for so they hear reporte; which, if it be so, I pray you take notice of this, that I have writen nothing but what is certainly true, and I could make so apeare planly to any indifferente men, whatsoever colours be cast to darken the truth, and some ther are very audatious this way; besids many other matters which are f arre out of order hear. My mind was not to enlarge my selfe any further, but in respecte of diverse poore souls here, the care of whom in parte belongs to you, being here destitute of the means of salvation. For how so ever the church are provided for, to their contente, who are the smalest number in the coUony, and doe so appropriate the ministrie to them selves, houlding this principle, that the Lord hath not appointed any ordinary ministrie for the conversion of those that are without, so that some of the poor souls have with tears complained of this to me, and I was taxed for preaching to all in generall. Though in truth they have had no ministrie here since they came, but such as may be performed by any of you, by their owne possition, what soever great pretences they make; but herin they equivocate, as in many other things they doe. But I exceede the bounds I set my selfe, therfore resting thus, untill I hear further from you, so it be within the time limited me. I rest, etc., Remaining yours ever. Dated Aug: 22. An°: 1624. John Lyfoed, Exille. They made a breefe answer to some things in this later, but referred cheefly to their former. The effecte was to this purpose: That if God in his providence had not brought these 1624] WILLIAM BRADFORD, GOVERNOR 191 things to their hands (both the former and later), they might have been thus abused, tradused, and calumniated, over- throwne, and imdone ; and never have knowne by whom, nor for what. They desired but this equall favoure, that they would be pleased to hear their just defence, as well as his accusations, and waigh them in the balance of justice and reason, and then censure as they pleased. They had write breefly to the heads of things before, and should be ready to give further answer as any occasion should require; craving leave to adde a word or tow to this last. 1. And first, they desire to examene what filth that was that he acknowledgeth might justly be throwne in his face, and might cause blushing and perpetuall silence; some great mater sure! But if it be looked into, it amounts to no more then a poynte of indiscretion, and thats all; and yet he licks of that too with this excuse, that he was stired up therunto by beholding the indirecte course here. But this point never troubled him here, it was counted a fight matter both by him and his freinds, and put of with this, — ^that any man might doe so, to advise his private freinds to come over for their best advantage. All his sorrow and tears here was for the wrong and hurt he had done us, and not at all for this he pretends to be done to you: it was not counted so much as indiscretion. 2. Having thus payed you full satisfaction, he thinks he may lay load of us here. And first complains that we have changed his wages ten times. We never agreed with him for any wages, nor made any bargen at all with him, neither know of any that you have made. You sent him over to teach amongst us, and desired he might be kindly used; and more then this we know not. That he hath beene kindly used, (and farr beter then he deserves from us,) he shall be judged first of his owne mouth. If you please to looke upon that writing of his, that was sent you amongst his leters, which he pals a generall relation, in which, though he doth otherwise 192 HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION [1624 traduse us, yet in this he him selfe clears us. In the latter end therof he hath these words. I speak not this (saith he) out of any ill affection to the men, for I have found them very kind and loving to me. You may ther see these to be his owne words under his owne hand. 2'^. It will appere by this that he hath ever had a larger alowance of food out of the store for him and his then any, and clothing as his neede hath required; a dwelling in one of our best houses, and a man wholy at his owne command to tend his private affairs. What cause he hath therfore to complaine, judge ye; and what he means in his speech we know not, except he aluds to that of Jaacob and Laban. If you have promised him more or other wise, you may doe it when you please. 3. Then with an impudente face he would have you take notice, that (in his leters) he hath write nothing but what is certainly true, yea, and he could make it so appeare plainly to any indifferente men. This indeed doth astonish us and causeth us to tremble at the deceitfulhies and desper- ate wickednes of mans harte. This is to devoure holy things, and after voues to enquire. It is admirable that after such pubhck confession, and acknowledgmente in court, in church, before God, and men, with such sadd expressions as he used, and with such melting into teares, that after all this he shoud now justifie all againe. If things had bene done in a corner, it had been some thinge to deney them; but being done in the open view of the cuntrie and before all men, it is more then strange now to avow to make them plainly appear to any indifferente men; and here wher things were done, and all the evidence that could be were presente, and yet could make nothing appear, but even his freinds condemnd him and gave their voyce to his censure, so grose were they; we leave your selves to judge herein. Yet least this man should tri- umph in his wikednes, we shall be ready to answer him, when, or wher you will, to any thing he shall lay to our charg, though we have done it sufficiently allready. 1624] WILLIAM BRADFORD, GOVERNOR 193 4. Then he saith he would not inlarge, but for some poore souls here who are destiute of the means of salvation, etc. But all his soothing is but that you would use means, that his censure might be released that he might here continue; and imder you (at least) be sheltered, till he sees what his freinds (on whom he depends) can bring about and effecte. For such men pretend much for poor souls, but they will looke to their wages and conditions; if that be not to their content, let poor souls doe what they will, they will shift for them selves, and seek poore souls some wher els among richer bodys. Next he fals upon the church, that indeed is the burthen- some stone that troubls him. First, he saith they hold this principle, that the Lord hath not apointed any ordinarie ministrie for the converssion of those without. The church needs not be ashamed of what she houlds in this, haveing Gods word for her warrente ; that ordinarie officers are boimd cheefly to their flocks. Acts 20. 28. and are not to be extrava- gants, to goe, come, and leave them at their pleasurs to shift for them selves, or to be devoured of wolves. But he perverts the truth in this as in other things, for the Lord hath as well appoynted them to converte, as to feede in their severall charges; and he wrongs the church to say other wise. Againe, he saith he was taxed for preaching to all in generall. This is a meere untruth, for this dissembler knows that every Lords day some are appointed to visite suspected places, and if any be found idling and neglecte the hearing of the word, (through idhies or profanes,) they are pimished for the same. Now to procure all to come to hear, and then to blame him for preaching to all, were to play the mad men. 6. Next (he saith) they have had no ministrie since they came, what soever pretences they make, etc. We answer, the more is our wrong, that our pastor is kept from us by these mens means, and then reproach us for it when they have done. Yet have we not been wholy distitute of the means of 194 HISTORY OP PLYMOUTH PLANTATION [1624 salvation, as this man would make the world beleeve; for our reve*^ Elder hath laboured diligently in dispencing the word of God unto us, before he came ; and since hath taken equalle pains with him selfe in preaching the same; and, be it spoaken without ostentation, he is not inferriour to Mr. L3rford (and some of his betters) either in gifts or laming, though he would never be perswaded to take higher office upon him. Nor ever was more pretended in this matter. For equivocating, he may take it to him selfe; what the church houlds, they have manifested to the world, in all plaines,' both in open confes- sion, doctrine, and writing. This was the sume of ther answer, and hear I wiU let them rest for the presente. I have bene longer in these things then I desired, and yet not so long as the things might require, for I pass many things in silence, and many more deserve to have been more largly handled. But I will retume to other things, and leave the rest to its place. The pinass^ that was left sunck and cast away near Dam- arins-cove, as is before showed, some of the fishing maisters said it was a pity so fine a vessell should be lost, and sent them word that, if they would be at the cost, they would both directe them how to waygh her, and let them have their car- penters to mend her. They thanked them, and sente men aboute it, and beaver to defray the charge, (without which all had been in vaine). So they gott coopers to trime, I know not how many tune of cask, and being made tight and fas- tened to her at low-water, they boyed her up ; and then with many hands hald her on shore in a conveniente place wher she might be wrought upon ; and then hired sundrie car- penters to work upon her, and other to saw planks, and at last fitted her and got her home. But she cost a great deale of money, in thus recovering her, and buying riging and seails for her, both now and when before she lost her mast; so as she proved a chargable vessell to the poor plantation. So they • Plainness. 2 The Ja-mes. 1625] WILLIAM BRADFORD, GOVERNOR 195 sent her home, and with her Lyford sent his last letter, in great secrecie; but the party intrusted with it gave it the Gov'. The winter was passed over in ther ordinarie affairs, with- out any spetiall mater worth noteing; saveing that many who before stood something of from the church, now seeing Lyf ords unrighteous dealing, and mahgnitie agaiast the church, now tendered them selves to the chiu-ch, and were joyned to the same; proffessing that it was not out of the dishke of any thing that they had stood of so long, but a desire to fitte them selves beter for such a state, and they saw now the Lord cald for their help. And so these troubls prodused a qmte con- trary effecte in sundrie hear, then these adversaries hoped for. Which was looked at as a great worke of God, to draw on men by unhckly means; and that in reason which might rather have set them further of. And thus I shall end this year. Anno Dom: 1625. At the spring of the year, about the time of their Election Coiui;,* Oldam came againe amongst them; and though it was a part of his censure for his former mutinye and miscariage, not to retume without leave first obtained, yet in his dareing spirite, he presumed without any leave at all, being also set on and hardened by the ill coimsell of others. And not only so, but suffered his unruly passion to rune beyond the hmits of all reason and modestie; in so much that some strangers which came with him were ashamed of his outrage, and re- buked him; but all reprofes were but as oyle to the fire, and made the flame of his coller greater. He caled them all to nought, in this his mad furie, and a hundred rebells and traytors, and I know not what. But in conclusion they com- mited him till he was tamer, and then apointed a gard of musketers which he was to pass throw, and ever one was ordered to give him a thump on the brich, with the but end of > Annual meeting for election of officers of the colony. 196 HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION [1625 his musket, and then was conveied to the water side, wher a boat was ready to cary him away. Then they bid him goe and mende his maners. Whilst this was a doing, Mr. WiUiam Peirce and Mr. Wins- low came up from the water side, being come from England; but they were so busie with Oldam, as they never saw them till they came thus upon them. They bid them not spare either him or Liford, for they had played the vilans with them. But that I may hear make an end with hi m, I shall hear once f or_aUj:filate-.wIi at befell concerning him in the fiSui%-and 4hat~bFee%:,_ After the removall of his familie from hence, he fell into some straits, (as some others did,) and aboute a year or more afterwards, towards winter, he intended a vioage for Virginia; but it so pleased God that the barke that caried him, and many other passengers, was in that danger, as they dispaired of Ufe; so as many of them, as they fell to prayer, so also did they begine to examine their consciences and confess such sins as did most burthen them. AnrI Mr. 0.ii]da.Tn e_HidTnpi,ke a free and large confession of the wron^_aad-lau±_h£_had done tojihe_geo£l£aiiachurch here, in many perticulers, that as he had sought their ruine, so God had now mette with him and might destroy him; yea, he feared they all fared the worce for his sake ; he prayed God to forgive him, and made vowes that, if the Lord spard his Ufe, he would become otherwise, and the Uke. This I had from some of good credite, yet hving in the Bay, and were them selves partners in the same dangers on the ghoulds Qf.,Cap- Codd, and heard it from his owne mouth. Clt pleased GodJ^ _ ap^ajtheir_]iyes,_though_they lost-^b^ ir viago j a n d - in time after wards, Ouldam caried him selfe fairly towards them, and acknowledged the hand of God to be with them, and seemed to have an honourable respecte of them; and so farr made his peace with them, as he in after time had libertie to goe and come, and converse with them, at his pleasure. He went after this to Virginia, and had ther a great sicknes, but 1625] WILLIAM BRADFORD, GOVERNOR 197 recovered and came back againe to his familie in the Bay, and ther hved till some store of people came over. At lenght going a trading in a smale vessell among the Indians, and being weakly mand, upon some quarell they knockt him on the head with a hatched, so as he fell downe dead, and never spake word more. 2. Utle boys that were his kinsmen were saved, but had some hurte, and the vessell was strangly recovered from the Indeans by another that belonged to the Bay of Massachusets; and this his death was one groimd of the Pequente^ warr which followed. I am now come to Mr. Lyford. His time being now ex- pired, his censure was to take place. He was so farre from answering their hopes by amendmente in the time, as he had dubled his evill, as is before noted. , Bnt, firRt. t jfthnlH the verified;__£sa:-X-i5. He hath made a pitte, and digged it,, and is fallen into the pitte he made. Hejthought to bring shame and disgrace upo n them, but in stead therof opens h is owne toalLAh ilworldr For when he was delte with all aboute his second letter, his wife was so affected with his doings, as she could no longer conceaill her greefe and sorrow of minde, but opens the same to one of their deacons and some other of her freinds, and after uttered the same to Mr. Peirce upon his arrivall. Which was to this piirpose, that she feared some great judgment of God would fall upon them, and upon her, for her husbands cause; now that they were to remove, she feared to fall into the Indeans hands, and to be defiled by them, as he had defiled other women; or some shuch like judgmente, as God had threatened David, 2. Sam. 12. 11. I will raise up evill against thee, and will take thy wives and give them, etc. And upon it showed how he had wronged her, as first he had a bastard by another before they were maried, and she having some inkUng of some ill cariage that way, when he was a suitor to her, she tould him what she heard, and • Pequot. 198 HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION [1625 deneyd him; but she not certainly knowing the thing, other wise then by some darke and secrete muterings, he not only stifly denied it, but to satisfie her tooke a solemne oath ther was no shuch matter. Upon which she gave consente, and maried with him ; but afterwards it was found true, and the bastard brought home to them. She then charged him with his oath, but he prayed pardon, and said he should els not have had her. And yet afterwards she could keep no maids but he would be medling with them, and some time she hath taken him in the maner, as they lay at their beds feete, with shuch other circumstances as I am ashamed to relate. The woman being a grave matron and of good cariage all the while she was hear, and spoake these things out of the sorrow of her harte, sparingly, and yet with some further intimations. And that which did most seeme to affecte her (as they conceived) was, to see his former cariage in his repentance, not only hear with the church, but formerly about these things; sheding tears, and using great and sade expressions, and yet eftsone fall into the hke things. Another thing of the same nature did strangly concurr herewith. When Mr. Winslow and Mr. Peirce were come over, Mr. Winslow informed them that they had had the hke bick- ering with Lyfords freinds in England, as they had with him selfe and his freinds hear, aboute his letters and accusations in them. And many meetings and much clamour was made by his freinds theraboute, crjdng out, a minister, a man so godly, to be so esteemed and taxed they held a great skandale, and threated to prosecute law against them for it. But things being referred to a further meetmg of most of the ad- venturers, to heare the case and decide the matters, they agreed to chose 2. eminente men for moderators in the bus- sines. Lyfords faction chose Mr. White, a counselor at law, the other parte chose Reve**. Mr. Hooker, • the minister, and ' Rev. Thomas Hooker, afterward the famous minister of Hartford; at this time he was rector of Esher in Surrey. 1625] WILLIAM BRADFORD, GOVERNOR 199 many freinds on both sids were brought in, so as ther was a great assemblie. In the mean time, God in his providence had detected Lyford's eAnll rariagp i.tLJj:fiLm.